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Toward A Theory Of Intercountry Human Rights: Global Capitalism And The Rise And Fall Of Intercountry Adoption, Barbara Stark 2020 Hofstra University

Toward A Theory Of Intercountry Human Rights: Global Capitalism And The Rise And Fall Of Intercountry Adoption, Barbara Stark

Indiana Law Journal

81818app手机版下载This Article proposes another mechanism for enforcement, an alternative to self-serving domestic policing and weak international bureaucracy. “Intercountry,” as opposed to “international,” human rights would apply to specific rights in specific contexts and be enforceable through the legal mechanisms and other resources of the state parties that accepted them. Intercountry adoption is a useful context in which to consider this proposal for several reasons.

First, as a practical matter, there have probably never been more babies and children in orphanages, on the street, on the market, or on their own. Yet intercountry adoptions have declined to levels not seen for ...


Consent To Student Loan Bankruptcy Discharge, John P. Hunt 2020 University of California - Davis

Consent To Student Loan Bankruptcy Discharge, John P. Hunt

Indiana Law Journal

81818app手机版下载As the Department of Education reconsiders its rules governing consent to discharge of federal student loans in bankruptcy, this Article argues for the first time that the Department should approach the problem specifically as an operator of programs to promote education and benefit students, rather than as an entity interested only in debt collection. This Article shows that the Department’s rules to date have treated whether to consent to discharge primarily as a pecuniary issue, without regard to the educational goals of the student loan programs. For example, the Department apparently has never considered whether making it difficult to ...


Patent Accidents: Questioning Strict Liability In Patent Law, Patrick R. Goold 2020 The City Law School; City; University of London

Patent Accidents: Questioning Strict Liability In Patent Law, Patrick R. Goold

Indiana Law Journal

Accidental infringement of patent rights is a pervasive and growing problem in the Information Age. As IP rights proliferate and expand in scope, it is becoming increasingly easy for companies and individuals to inadvertently infringe patents. When such accidental infringement occurs, patent law holds the infringer strictly liable. This contrasts with many areas of tort law where defendants are only liable if they act negligently.

This Article questions the normative desirability of strict liability in patent law. Assuming the primary value of patent law is utilitarian, this Article poses the research question: what liability rule will maximize social welfare? This ...


The Irony Of Health Care’S Public Option, Allison K. Hoffman 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

The Irony Of Health Care’S Public Option, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

81818app手机版下载The idea of a public health insurance option is at least a half century old, but has not yet had its day in the limelight. This chapter explains why if that moment ever comes, health care’s public option will fall short of expectations that it will provide a differentiated, meaningful alternative to private health insurance and will spur health insurance competition.

Health care’s public option bubbled up in its best-known form in California in the early 2000s and got increasing mainstream attention in the lead up to the 2010 health reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ...


Uncertainty > Risk: Lessons For Legal Thought From The Insurance Runoff Market, Tom Baker 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School 81818app手机版下载

Uncertainty > Risk: Lessons For Legal Thought From The Insurance Runoff Market, Tom Baker

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Insurance ideas inform legal thought: from tort law, to health law and financial services regulation, to theories of distributive justice. Within that thought, insurance is conceived as an ideal type in which insurers distribute determinable risks through contracts that fix the parties’ obligations in advance. This ideal type has normative appeal, among other reasons because it explains how tort law might achieve in practice the objectives of tort theory. This ideal type also supports a restrictive vision of liability-based regulation that opposes expansions and supports cutbacks, on the grounds that uncertainty poses an existential threat to insurance markets.

81818app手机版下载Prior work ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2020 Seattle University School of Law 81818app手机版下载

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Equipping The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation For The Low-Carbon Transition How Are Other National Oil Companies Adapting?, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Francisco Javier Pardinas Favela 2020 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Equipping The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation For The Low-Carbon Transition How Are Other National Oil Companies Adapting?, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Francisco Javier Pardinas Favela

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation’s (NNPC) persistent governance challenges have both hampered Nigeria’s oil sector development and deprived the country of public resources. The oil, climate, and COVID-19 crises and the ramp-up of the low-carbon transition exacerbate this reality, with the national oil company (NOC) delivering sub-optimal returns to its stakeholders.

81818app手机版下载Other NOCs have taken meaningful steps to become players in the low-carbon energy transition domestically or in­ternationally – for example, Sau­di Arabia’s Saudi Aramco, Norway’s Equinor, Brazil’s Petrobras, Malaysia’s Petronas, and Algeria’s Sonatrach. These NOCs can serve as sources of inspiration ...


Constitutionalizing Financial Stability, Patricia A. McCoy 2020 Boston College Law School 81818app手机版下载

Constitutionalizing Financial Stability, Patricia A. Mccoy

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In the last Supreme Court term, the Court ruled in Seila Law LLC v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau that Article II of the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers prohibit Congress from shielding the Bureau’s director from termination except for cause. Seila Law has natural implications for the CFPB’s independence (although the magnitude of that effect is unclear). More troubling, Seila Law81818app手机版下载 could open up the financial system to destabilization by paving the path for a full-scale assault on the traditional independence of federal financial regulators and presidential manipulation of the economy.

Seila Law81818app手机版下载 erodes independent agency ...


Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School 81818app手机版下载

Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

81818app手机版下载Regulatory compliance is vital for promoting the public values served by regulation. Yet many businesses remain out of compliance with some of the regulations that apply to them—presenting not only possible dangers to the public but also exposing themselves to potentially significant liability risk. Compliance management systems (CMSs) may help reduce the likelihood of noncompliance. In recent years, managers have begun using CMSs in an effort to address compliance issues in a variety of domains: environment, workplace health and safety, finance, health care, and aviation, among others. CMSs establish systematic, checklist-like processes by which managers seek to improve their ...


Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School 81818app手机版下载

Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article first considers an often-discussed question about large internet platforms that deal directly with consumers: Are they “winner take all,” or natural monopoly, firms? That question is complex and does not produce the same answer for every platform. The closer one looks at digital platforms they less they seem to be winner-take-all. As a result, we can assume that competition can be made to work in most of them.

Second, assuming that an antitrust violation is found, what should be the appropriate remedy? Breaking up large firms subject to extensive scale economies or positive network effects is generally thought ...


Virtual Currency As Crypto Collateral Under Article 9 Of The Ucc: Trying To Fit A Square Peg In A Round Hole, Sharon E. Foster 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Virtual Currency As Crypto Collateral Under Article 9 Of The Ucc: Trying To Fit A Square Peg In A Round Hole, Sharon E. Foster

Arkansas Law Review

81818app手机版下载This Article addresses the current state of academic discussion regarding the problems of creating an enforceable security interest under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) using virtual currency, such as bitcoin, as collateral. While academic discussion is helpful and, indeed, may one day be adopted by a court and become law, the primary problem in using virtual currency as collateral is the uncertainty regarding using Article 9 to create an enforceable security interest in virtual currency. Simply put, Article 9 does not specifically address virtual currency as collateral, and we have no case law at this time to ...


New Things Under The Sun: How The Cftc Is Using Virtual Currencies To Expand Its Jurisdiction, James Michael Blakemore 2020 University of Michigan Law School 81818app手机版下载

New Things Under The Sun: How The Cftc Is Using Virtual Currencies To Expand Its Jurisdiction, James Michael Blakemore

Arkansas Law Review

81818app手机版下载A decade has passed since Bitcoin solved a fundamental problem plaguing virtual currencies: How to ensure, without resort to financial intermediaries or other trusted central authorities, that a unit of digital currency can be spent only once. In that time, Bitcoin has inspired countless follow-on projects. Some have attempted to improve the technology’s potential use for digital cash, by, for example, increasing the number of transactions processed per second or improving user privacy. Others have strayed further from Bitcoin’s original intent, building on blockchain—Bitcoin’s central innovation—to enable distributed computing and so-called smart contracting, decentralized lending ...


Covid And Crime: An Early Empirical Look, David S. Abrams 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Covid And Crime: An Early Empirical Look, David S. Abrams

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We collect data from over 25 large cities in the U.S. and document the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on crime. There is a widespread immediate drop in both criminal incidents and arrests most heavily pronounced among drug crimes, theft, residential burglaries, and most violent crimes. The decline appears to precede most stay-at-home orders, and arrests follow a similar pattern as reports. We find no decline in homicides and shootings, and an increase in non-residential burglary and car theft in most cities, suggesting that criminal activity was displaced to locations with fewer people. Pittsburgh, New York City, San ...


The Property-Tax Bundle Of Rights, Edward J. McCaffery 2020 University of Southern California;California Institute of Tecnology

The Property-Tax Bundle Of Rights, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This Article introduces the concept of a property-tax bundle of rights. There is no property without tax; tax inevitably affects property rights. America has settled into an absolute conception of the property-tax bundle, under which private individuals have absolute power over their property for all time after an initial payment of a flattened wage tax. The project of property, from Blackstone to Coase, has sought alignment of the private and public interests. The absolute conception works well for things. But neither property nor tax theory have checked the unlimited powers granted to the owners of private capital: Money has slipped ...


Should Corporations Have A Purpose?, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Should Corporations Have A Purpose?, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The hot topic in corporate governance is the debate over corporate purpose and, in particular, whether corporations should shift their purpose from the pursuit of shareholder wealth to pursuing a broader conception of stakeholder or societal value. We argue that this debate has overlooked the critical predicate questions of whether a corporation should have a purpose at all and, if so, why,

81818app手机版下载We address these questions by examining the historical, legal and theoretical justifications for corporate purpose. We find that none of the three provides a basis for requiring a corporation to articulate a particular purpose or for a given ...


Appraisal Waivers, Jill E. Fisch 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Appraisal Waivers, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A judicial determination of fair value in a private company can be a difficult and imprecise process. This difficulty coupled with variations in way mergers are negotiated and structured and the potential for conflicts of interest lend uncertainty to appraisal proceedings. As a result, corporate participants have powerful reasons to seek to limit the uncertainty associated with an appraisal proceeding ex ante. The response has been the growing use of shareholder agreements that limit appraisal rights.

81818app手机版下载Appraisal waivers also offer a potentially attractive solution to a somewhat different concern, the growth of appraisal litigation in publicly traded companies. As with ...


Private Ordering And The Role Of Shareholder Agreements, Jill E. Fisch 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Private Ordering And The Role Of Shareholder Agreements, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Corporate law has embraced private ordering -- tailoring a firm’s corporate governance to meet its individual needs. Firms, particularly venture-capital backed start-ups, are increasingly adopting firm-specific governance provisions such as dual-class voting structures, arrangements to create stable shared control rights among a coalition of minority shareholders, and provisions that limit the permissible fora for shareholder litigation. Courts have broadly upheld these provisions as consistent with the contractual theory of the firm. Commentators too, while finding some governance provisions objectionable, nonetheless support a private ordering approach as facilitating innovation and enhancing efficiency.

81818app手机版下载Although most analyses of private ordering focus on provisions ...


Caremark And Esg, Perfect Together: A Practical Approach To Implementing An Integrated, Efficient, And Effective Caremark And Eesg Strategy, Leo E. Strine Jr., Kirby M. Smith, Reilly S. Steel 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Caremark And Esg, Perfect Together: A Practical Approach To Implementing An Integrated, Efficient, And Effective Caremark And Eesg Strategy, Leo E. Strine Jr., Kirby M. Smith, Reilly S. Steel

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

With increased calls from investors, legislators, and academics for corporations to consider employee, environmental, social, and governance factors (“EESG”) when making decisions, boards and managers are struggling to situate EESG within their existing reporting and organizational structures. Building on an emerging literature connecting EESG with corporate compliance, this Essay argues that EESG is best understood as an extension of the board’s duty to implement and monitor a compliance program under Caremark81818app手机版下载. If a company decides to do more than the legal minimum, it will simultaneously satisfy legitimate demands for strong EESG programs and promote compliance with the law. Building ...


Synthetic Governance, Byung Hyun Anh, Jill E. Fisch, Panos N. Patatoukas, Steven Davidoff Solomon 2020 UC Berkeley 81818app手机版下载

Synthetic Governance, Byung Hyun Anh, Jill E. Fisch, Panos N. Patatoukas, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Scholars, practitioners and policymakers continue to debate what constitutes “good” corporate governance. Academic efforts to evaluate the effect of governance provisions such as dual class voting structures, staggered boards of directors and separating the positions of CEO and Chairman of the Board, have produced inconsistent or inconclusive results. The consequence is that the debate over corporate governance is increasingly political and discordant.

We offer a way to address this debate. The rise of index-based investing provides a market-based alternative to governance regulation. Through the creation of bespoke governance index funds, asset managers can offer investors the opportunity to choose an ...


Implicit Communication And Enforcement Of Corporate Disclosure Regulation, Ashiq Ali, Michael T. Durney, Jill E. Fisch, Hoyoun Kyung 2020 University of Texas at Dallas 81818app手机版下载

Implicit Communication And Enforcement Of Corporate Disclosure Regulation, Ashiq Ali, Michael T. Durney, Jill E. Fisch, Hoyoun Kyung

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This study examines the challenge of implicit communication -- qualitative statements, tone, and non-verbal cues -- to the effectiveness of enforcing corporate disclosure regulation. We use a Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg FD) setting, given that the SEC adopted the regulation recognizing that managers can convey non-public information privately not just through explicit quantitative disclosures but also through implicit communication. In a high-profile enforcement action, however, the court focused on a literal examination of the manager’s language rather than his positive spin to conclude that the SEC had been “too demanding” in examining the manager’s statements and that its enforcement policy ...