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Bioethics and Medical Ethics Commons

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Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim 2020 Independent Researcher

Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim

Animal Sentience

Wiebers & Feigin accurately propose that reducing the risks posed by infectious disease outbreaks and other global health challenges will depend critically on transitioning away from intensive animal farming practices. Creating the right incentive structure for this transition to happen is one of the great challenges in the years to come, but a much-needed step to ensure the health and well-being of current and future generations.


Searching For Covid-19 Treatments: First, Do No Harm, Roy Guharoy, Edward Krenzelok 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School 81818app手机版下载

Searching For Covid-19 Treatments: First, Do No Harm, Roy Guharoy, Edward Krenzelok

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

FDA is the gatekeeper to protect the public health and is critical to sustain US global leadership in drug innovation. Our foundation of evidence-based clinical practice is based on large, well-designed randomized controlled trials. The failure of HCQ against COVID-19 stands as prime example of the urgent need for adherence to science. Rigorous scientific objectivity Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/ajhp/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa257/5879960 by Medical Center Library user on 17 August 2020 13 and independence must prevail in any future EUA decision by FDA. Trust in FDA’s mission to approve safe and effective ...


Financial Conflicts Of Interest Change After A High-Impact Clinical Trial Publication In Oncology, Craig L. Cambridge, Emily Stern Gatof, Glen J. Weiss, Roger B. Davis 2020 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Francisco Marroquin 81818app手机版下载

Financial Conflicts Of Interest Change After A High-Impact Clinical Trial Publication In Oncology, Craig L. Cambridge, Emily Stern Gatof, Glen J. Weiss, Roger B. Davis

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Because financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) may potentially influence patient care, hospital drug formularies, and treatment guidelines, it is important that these are disclosed. The purpose of this observational study was to quantify the changes in FCOI among U.S.-based academic authors in industry-sponsored oncology trials after a high-impact publication.

Methods: A list of all U.S.-based academic authors (authors) of industry-sponsored solid tumor clinical trials published between August 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015, in 6 high-impact journals (New England Journal of Medicine, Nature, Science, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, and Cancer Discovery) was assembled ...


Impacts Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Black Americans With Diabetes, Ted Studt 2020 Ursinus College 81818app手机版下载

Impacts Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Black Americans With Diabetes, Ted Studt

Biology Summer Fellows

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all Americans in varying ways, but it has hit the American Black population particularly hard. It also impacts immunocompromised individuals, especially those with conditions that involve damage to or hindering of the cardiovascular or respiratory systems. I found myself asking several questions – how much did this affect individuals who suffer from such conditions, especially those who are Black Americans; how much does systemic racism play in the current pandemic; what could be done about all this; and so on. Since I myself have lived with type I diabetes for almost two decades at the time ...


Brain Complexity, Sentience And Welfare, Donald M. Broom 2020 University of Cambridge

Brain Complexity, Sentience And Welfare, Donald M. Broom

Animal Sentience

Neither sentience nor moral standing is confined to animals with large or human-like brains. Invertebrates deserve moral consideration. Definition of terms clarifies the relationship between sentience and welfare. All animals have welfare but humans give more protection to sentient animals. Humans should be less human-centred.


Payment And Pricing Decisions In Health Care Reform, Aaron Glickman 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Payment And Pricing Decisions In Health Care Reform, Aaron Glickman

Issue Briefs

Any effort to reform health insurance in the United States must tackle the prices we pay for health care. There are many complex challenges to addressing prices. Some proposals build on the existing Medicare fee schedule, while others suggest promoting alternative payment mechanisms—or even starting from scratch. The stakes are substantial, as many reform proposals rely on reining in prices to achieve the savings necessary to expand health insurance to the uninsured. At Penn’s LDI Medicare for All and Beyond , a panel of researchers, hospital administrators, and policy experts considered issues related to health care payment and ...


Should Active Euthanasia Be Morally And Legally Permissible?, Arisa D. Dintcho 2020 University of Puget Sound 81818app手机版下载

Should Active Euthanasia Be Morally And Legally Permissible?, Arisa D. Dintcho

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

In the United States, death is mostly avoided at all costs, making euthanasia a highly controversial topic. The two distinct types of euthanasia in the United States are active and passive euthanasia. This paper examines the moral permissibility of active and passive euthanasia using a rule-utilitarian framework. The rule-utilitarian approach focuses on consistently following a set rule that leads to the most beneficial and moral outcome for all of those involved. More specifically, this paper argues that due to lack of moral distinction between active and passive euthanasia, both should be legalized. Furthermore, legalizing euthanasia allows for the greatest good ...


What Moral Obligations Do Healthcare Providers Have To Offer Language Services?, Katherine Gladhart-Hayes 2020 University of Puget Sound

What Moral Obligations Do Healthcare Providers Have To Offer Language Services?, Katherine Gladhart-Hayes

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

81818app手机版下载This paper analyzes the need for language services in the healthcare system. While U.S. law requires the provision of medical services, patients and families often do not receive the services they need. Even patients and family members with strong English language abilities may struggle with medical language or in an emotionally charged context. This paper uses a feminist analysis, drawing on Social Contract Theory and Kantian ethics, to argue for the ethical responsibility of healthcare providers to offer adequate interpretive services.


How Does The Way We Categorize Disability Influence The Morality Of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis?, Lily L. Price 2020 University of Puget Sound

How Does The Way We Categorize Disability Influence The Morality Of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis?, Lily L. Price

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

The increased use of in vitro fertilization has raised many ethical questions pertaining to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PDG). PGD allows parents to screen for and diagnose chromosomal and genetic disorders in the created embryos. This raises great concern for the ability to select for or against disabilities. In this paper I argue that the definition of disability needs to be modified in order to determine whether or not PGD is moral and supports human flourishing. Using Aristotle’s model of virtue ethics, three modes of disability are applied to various cases of PGD. Working through the cases I argue that ...


Mindfulness And The Need To Minimize The Risk Of Harm: A Proposal To Implement And Enforce Standards For Secular Mindfulness Practice, Michael Falick 2020 Lesley University

Mindfulness And The Need To Minimize The Risk Of Harm: A Proposal To Implement And Enforce Standards For Secular Mindfulness Practice, Michael Falick

Mindfulness Studies Theses

81818app手机版下载While Western mindfulness practice is indeed beneficial for many participants, the research now clearly demonstrates that for some meditators, there are attendant potential risks. These potential risks to practitioners require a level of care from those individuals (and corporations) that disseminate mindfulness practice. Historically, in traditional Buddhist practice, mindfulness was but one of the eight factors on the Noble Eightfold Path. An important component of traditional practice strongly relies on ethics in the delivery of the practice. A formalized standard of care for modern, secular mindfulness practices, and a method to implement and enforce that standard, will greatly enhance safety ...


Unaddressed Challenges For The “Most Honest And Ethical Profession:” A Pilot Study Of Web-Based Learning Strategies To Prevent Moral Distress, Kelly Straight 2020 The University of San Francisco 81818app手机版下载

Unaddressed Challenges For The “Most Honest And Ethical Profession:” A Pilot Study Of Web-Based Learning Strategies To Prevent Moral Distress, Kelly Straight

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Background:81818app手机版下载 Nurses and nurse practitioners (NPs) face greater responsibility to address the ethical challenges that present during the course of patient care, due to advances in medical technology and pharmaceutical innovation, and because of widening disparities within the U.S. healthcare system. These ethical questions, which arise during the course of routine patient care, are increasing in both number and complexity in nearly every patient care setting. Even with codified ethical standards, unresolved and/or ongoing ethical questions and dilemmas pose further issues such as the development of moral distress. This pilot project was designed to help NPs and other ...


Pediatric Intensivists' Perspectives On Nudging, aliza olive 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital 81818app手机版下载

Pediatric Intensivists' Perspectives On Nudging, Aliza Olive

Research Days

81818app手机版下载No abstract provided.


Quality In All Levels: A Model Defining And Measuring Quality In Bioethics Education, Ercan Avci 2020 Duquesne University

Quality In All Levels: A Model Defining And Measuring Quality In Bioethics Education, Ercan Avci

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to the lack of academic studies in the quality assessment of bioethics education, this dissertation aimed to propose a normative model, Quality in All Levels (QAL), to define and measure quality in bioethics education. The QAL model described quality in bioethics education as conformance to the goals and determined these goals as (1) increasing ethical knowledge, (2) improving ethical skills to strengthen ethical sensitivity, awareness, and judgment, (3) developing ethical81818app手机版下载behavior, and (4) promoting cultural competence. The dissertation utilized Avedis Donabedian’s three approaches: structure, process, and outcome to formulate quality standards and indicators in bioethics education. In respect ...


Autonomy And The Patient’S Perspective On Physician-Assisted Suicide, Anna Dykhuis 2020 Winona State University

Autonomy And The Patient’S Perspective On Physician-Assisted Suicide, Anna Dykhuis

Nursing Masters Papers

Introduction:81818app手机版下载 Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is an end of life (EOL) option that involves a patient ingesting a lethal medication that has been prescribed by a physician after a complex vetting process. In certain countries and states within the United States (US) where PAS is legal, patients avoid EOL suffering and may have more control over the dying process.

Scholarly Inquiry Question: Do patients who seek end-of-life care by means of PAS have a greater sense of control of their dying process versus those patients who do not or are not allowed to participate in PAS?

Supporting Evidence: Physical and emotional ...


Ethical Implications Of The Legal Definition Of Brain Death In Light Of Modern Technological Advancements, Jordyn Elise Fullaway 2020 Saint Michael's College

Ethical Implications Of The Legal Definition Of Brain Death In Light Of Modern Technological Advancements, Jordyn Elise Fullaway

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Modern medical advancements in resuscitation and life support shifted the idea of death from a cardio-respiratory view to that of a neurocentric view. As a result, the definition of brain death (BD) emerged, which is the irreversible loss of brain function in both the brainstem and cerebral cortex. One is considered brain dead if they have no brainstem reflexes, a lack of cerebral blood flow, and an absence of cerebral electrical activity. Consequentially, guidelines for determining BD were defined under law, and it is now legal to remove a patient from life support if they are diagnosed as brain dead ...


Ethical Considerations Regarding Paternalism In Medicine, Lola Holcomb 2020 Ursinus College

Ethical Considerations Regarding Paternalism In Medicine, Lola Holcomb

Richard T. Schellhase Essay Prize in Ethics

81818app手机版下载Paternalism and autonomy are typically conceptualized as opposing theoretical frameworks. With respect to medical ethics, autonomy is practiced by the patient when he/she has liberty and control over his/her own medical matters, and his/her opinions supersede those of the physician. Paternalism is practiced by the physician when he/she restricts the patient’s autonomy (sometimes against the patient’s will) to promote health and well-being while discouraging undesirable behaviors. This paper details and analyzes a number of cases of medical paternalism in practice, both from the past and in the present day, with the purpose of examining ...


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University 81818app手机版下载

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

81818app手机版下载The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Inconceivable: An Analysis Of Assisted Reproductive Technology For The Church, Mary Elizabeth Gresham 2020 Liberty University

Inconceivable: An Analysis Of Assisted Reproductive Technology For The Church, Mary Elizabeth Gresham

Senior Honors Theses

Infertility pushes the boundaries of emotional and physical health, which is why many couples inside and outside the church turn to Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for a solution. Despite what has seemed like silence from the Church, some individuals have braved the biological confusion and ethical dilemmas to evaluate the technology. Three major ethical viewpoints have emerged that each prioritize something over medical technology, namely community, order, or human dignity. This paper serves to educate pastors and church leaders on the ever-changing biology of ART as well as give voice to Christians that have spoken out on this issue. At ...


Spiritual And Religious Interventions For Medically High-Risk Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathanael J. Strissel 2020 Liberty University 81818app手机版下载

Spiritual And Religious Interventions For Medically High-Risk Adults: A Systematic Review, Nathanael J. Strissel

Senior Honors Theses

This systematic review is an update and expansion to the population and methods of a previous systematic review concerning spiritual and religious interventions for the well-being of terminally ill adults. After expanding the criteria to incorporate a more diverse population and including non-randomized experimental studies that contained relatively few concerns of bias, the results of the review are inconclusive due to insufficient data. The lack of usable data in the field highlights the ethical and theoretical issues with the use of experimental trials in analyzing the efficacy of spiritual and religious interventions. The development of spirituality in healthcare will remain ...


Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death: Benchmark Study, Marilyn R. Strait 2020 Unversity of Texas at Tyler 81818app手机版下载

Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death: Benchmark Study, Marilyn R. Strait

MSN Capstone Projects

Abstract

81818app手机版下载In potential organ donors after circulatory death (P), does the utilization of an evidence-based critical pathway from identification of potential donor to organ donation (I) versus no utilization of an evidence-based critical pathway (C) increase the rate of organ procurement and the satisfaction of donor families with the donation process (O)? A benchmark study was conducted to answer this question, and in short, yes, it does. The utilization of a critical pathway, when individualized to a local population and hospital’s organization increases the organ procurement rate, the donor family satisfaction with the process, and increases staff satisfaction with ...